It is known that excessive smoking is linked to many types of cancers and brain tumors, and we keep finding more connections. Surprisingly, unlike smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol does not possess a direct risk factor for brain tumor development.
While we’re sure that alcohol can cause cancer, we need more research to figure out how it is not directly connected to brain tumors. Even though alcohol might not have a direct effect on brain tumors, we shouldn’t ignore the fact that if the total alcohol consumption is too much, then it is a risk factor.
1. What is a Brain Tumor?
When cells in the brain grow uncontrollably and in a way that’s not normal, then this abnormal cell growth is called a brain tumor. There are two main types:
- Primary Tumor: When brain cells themselves start growing and multiplying in a strange way, causing a tumor, it’s called a primary tumor.
- Secondary Tumor: If abnormal cells from another body part spread to the brain, it’s called a secondary tumor. These are the most common types of brain tumors and usually travel through the bloodstream, and cancers from the breast, lungs, kidneys, and skin are the ones that most often spread to the brain.
2. Symptoms of Brain Tumor
The signs of a brain tumor depend on how big it is and where it is in the brain, and some tumors grow slowly and might not show any signs at first. As they get bigger, they can press on the brain and cause these signs:
Strong and lasting headaches that aren’t connected to a usual illness like migraine are often seen in people with a brain tumor.
The pain may be worse in the mornings and might come with feelings of nausea or vomiting. These headaches linked to a brain tumor usually get worse when you cough, exercise, or change position. Regular pain medications might not help.
Sometimes, a person who is healthy otherwise might suddenly have seizures or fits, and this can be the first sign that there’s a brain tumor.
3. Causes of Brain Tumors
We don’t fully understand what causes brain tumors yet, but there are some common things that might increase the chances of having one:
Being overweight or obese can make the risk of certain types of brain tumors go up.
Doing things like smoking and drinking too much alcohol might lead to abnormal cell growth, which can trigger a brain tumor.
Being around radiation from X-rays, CT scans, power lines, nuclear plants, mobile phones, and cell phone towers over and over again may increase the risk of tumors.
Coming into contact with certain harmful chemicals like those found in diesel exhaust, tobacco smoke, arsenic, cadmium, nickel, and more could also trigger a brain tumor.
4. The Link Between Alcohol Consumption and Brain Tumors
The connection between alcohol intake and getting a brain tumor is not as direct as it is with smoking, specifically when considering moderate alcohol consumption. Drinking a lot of alcohol itself doesn’t usually directly cause brain tumors to start forming and, thus, is not statistically significant.
But, if someone has liver problems from chronic alcohol consumption, like cirrhosis, it can lead to liver tumors that might spread to the brain and cause symptoms of a brain tumor.
Even though we don’t completely understand how alcohol affects the development of brain tumors, these are the risk factors:
- DNA damage and mutations: The substances produced when the body breaks down alcohol can harm the DNA and cause changes that make cells grow abnormally, and this could be a factor in the development of brain tumors.
- Weakening the immune system: Drinking alcohol a lot for a long time can make the immune system less effective. This means it might not be as good at finding and destroying cells that could become cancerous. This weakened defense system might increase the chance of getting a brain tumor.
- Nutritional deficiencies: People with reported alcohol consumption often don’t eat well and may not get enough essential nutrients. Lack of proper nutrition, especially not getting enough antioxidants and important vitamins, could contribute to the growth of brain tumors.
5. Alcohol Consumption and Cancers
Certain types of cancers are more likely in people who drink alcohol, including cancers of the esophagus, larynx, throat, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, lung cancer, prostate, breast, central nervous system, and skin. If you drink a lot of alcohol, the chances of getting another cancer in the aerodigestive tract are also higher.
The risk of cancer is often higher when someone drinks a lot of alcohol, but the amount needed to increase the risk can vary depending on the type of cancer. For example, a recent study on liver cancer found that the more alcohol someone drank, the higher their risk of liver cancer compared to those who didn’t drink.
Drinking about three alcoholic drinks a day was linked to a moderate increase in risk, while around seven drinks a day was associated with a 66 percent increase in risk. A similar pattern was seen for breast cancer risk.
However, it’s important to note that alcohol doesn’t raise the risk for all types of cancer, and in some cases, it might even be linked to a lower risk. For instance, while overall alcoholic beverage consumption is connected to an increased risk of breast cancer in women, this connection doesn’t apply to all types of breast cancer.
In one study, the risk of estrogen-positive breast cancer was higher in women who drank alcohol. Still, the risk of triple-negative breast cancer was lower in drinkers compared to women who never consumed alcohol.
It can be concluded, based on what we have seen above, that moderate alcohol consumption is not very bad for the body, in general. But if we are considering cancer patients or, even people undergoing cancer treatment, or other such people with some chronic conditions, then alcohol abuse is not a good idea.
Based on studies and further research, consumption has been linked with various body factors and indices, but it is still not as bad as cigarette smoking. Heavy drinkers should take care of their caloric intake and try to move towards occasional drinking to reduce alcohol’s impact.
It is not a causal factor for brain tumors, but combined with other risk factors, it can become dangerous.