The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, was a major turning point in the history of the United States. Prior to the law’s enactment, immigration policies were based on a discriminatory quota system that favoured certain nationalities while severely limiting the entry of others.
The 1965 Act abolished these quotas and instead established a system that prioritized family reunification and skilled immigrants.
The Hart-Celler Act also known as Immigration and Nationality Act opened the door to large-scale immigration from countries that had been previously excluded, such as Mexico and other Latin American nations, as well as parts of Asia and Africa.
As a result, the United States saw a significant increase in immigration, both legal and unauthorized, that fundamentally changed the country’s demographic makeup.
Today, the legacy of the 1965 Act continues to influence U.S. immigration policy, with family reunification and skilled workers still being key priorities. However, the law has also faced criticism for contributing to undocumented immigration and for not adequately addressing the needs of low-skilled workers.
As the 50th anniversary of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was celebrated in October 2015, it provided an opportunity to reflect on the law’s historic significance and to consider the important lessons it holds for policymakers today.
With ongoing debates around immigration policy in the United States, the Immigration and Nationality Act serves as a reminder of the complex challenges involved in shaping a fair and effective immigration system.
1. The Concept of the Immigration and Nationality Act
The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) was first brought to play in 1952 that was made to consolidate and reorganize various provisions of immigration law. Since then, the INA has been amended numerous times and remains one of the most important pieces of legislation in the field of immigration law.
The INA is included in the United States Code (U.S.C.), which is a comprehensive compilation of all federal laws in the United States. Title 8 of the U.S. Code specifically pertains to “Aliens and Nationality.”
For accuracy and consistency, the United States Citizenship, and Immigration Services (USCIS) provides links to the official U.S. Code, which is prepared and maintained by the Office of the Law Revision Counsel of the U.S. House of Representatives.
2. The Growth of the Immigration and Nationality Act
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 holds great historical significance as it marked the end of the national-origin quotas that had been in place since the 1920s.
These quotas ensured that immigration to the United States was primarily reserved for European immigrants, effectively limiting the entry of individuals from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Southern and Eastern Europe.
The national-origins quota law was initially enacted in 1921 and proposed during a time when eugenics theories were widely accepted. The quota for each country was set at 2 percent of the foreign-born population of that nationality as enumerated in the 1890 census.
This formula favoured Western and Northern European countries, while drastically limiting the admission of immigrants from other regions.
Despite strong opposition, the national origins system was retained during major revisions to U.S. immigration law in 1952, which was met with a strong veto message by President Truman.
The 1965 Act was a significant departure from this discriminatory system, and it prioritized family reunification and skilled immigrants over national origin.
This marked a significant shift in U.S. immigration policy and led to a substantial increase in both legal and unauthorized immigration from countries that had been previously excluded.
Diving deeper into the concept, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 played a crucial role in ending discriminatory immigration policies and establishing a more inclusive and diverse immigration system in the United States.
Adding further to the aforementioned, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, represented a major shift in U.S. immigration policy. Prior to this law, immigration was governed by a national-origin quota system that heavily favoured immigrants from Northern and Western Europe.
This system was widely criticized for being discriminatory, as it greatly restricted immigration from other parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The 1965 law abolished this system and replaced it with a preference system based on family relationships and skills. Under this system, immigrants with close family members who were U.S. citizens or legal permanent residents were given priority, as were immigrants with valuable skills that were in demand in the U.S. labour market.
The law also established a cap on the number of immigrants who could enter the U.S. each year, with separate quotas for the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The quota for the Eastern Hemisphere was set at 170,000, with no single country allowed to receive more than 20,000 visas. The quota for the Western Hemisphere was set at 120,000.
Three-fourths of all admissions were reserved for those arriving in family categories, with immediate relatives exempt from the quotas. Siblings of U.S. citizens were also given a significant share of family visas, with 24 per cent allocated to them.
The 1965 law has had a significant impact on U.S. immigration patterns. It has led to a much more diverse pool of immigrants, with greater representation from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
It has also led to a greater emphasis on family reunification as a guiding principle of U.S. immigration policy. However, it has also been the subject of controversy and criticism, with some arguing that it has led to an excessive influx of low-skilled immigrants and has contributed to economic inequality.
Despite being ratified half a century ago, the Immigration and Nationality Act’s framework still shapes the legal immigration system in the United States today. There are currently five family-based admissions categories, each ranked in preference based on the family relationship and capped at a total of 480,000 visas. Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens are exempt from these caps.
Running parallelly on the aforementioned explanation, there are five employment-based categories, which are capped at 140,000 visas.
Smaller numbers of immigrants are admitted through refugee protection channels and the Diversity Visa Lottery program, which was established to bring immigrants from countries that are underrepresented in U.S. immigration streams, in part as a result of the 1965 Act.
Although Congress passed the Immigration Act of 1990 in an effort to admit more highly skilled and educated immigrants through employment channels, family-based immigrants still comprise about two-thirds of legal immigration. Only about 15 percent of immigrants become permanent residents through their employers.
Although there are numerous ongoing debates about immigration policy, the Immigration and Nationality Act’s four squares have remained largely intact for over fifty years.
While some argue that there is a need for greater emphasis on skilled immigration and temporary work visas, others believe that family reunification should continue to be a central feature of the U.S. immigration system. As such, the future of U.S. immigration policy is likely to continue to be shaped by these debates and discussions.
2.1 The Effect of Passing the Immigration and Nationality Bill
Looking back on the passage of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, it is clear that the law represented a major departure from previous immigration policies.
Rather than relying on national origins quotas to determine who could enter the country, the new law established a system of preferences based on categories such as family relationships, job skills, and refugee status.
While the law did away with quotas, it still placed caps on overall immigration levels and set limits on each category. Nevertheless, family reunification remained a key goal, and the new system made it easier for entire families to emigrate to the United States.
In the years since the passage of the Immigration and Nationality 1965 Act, the U.S. has become home to millions of immigrants from around the world.
While the law has faced criticism from some who argue that it has led to too much immigration or that it has given too much preference to family reunification over other factors, it remains a cornerstone of U.S. immigration policy.
Focusing solely on the effect, the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act has on the concept of immigration to the United States was dramatic and far-reaching.
In the years immediately following the law’s passage, immigration from Asian countries, which had previously been effectively barred, increased dramatically, particularly from war-torn Southeast Asia, including Vietnam and Cambodia.
Additionally, the law allowed for increased immigration from countries affected by Cold War-era conflicts, such as Cuba and Eastern Europe. As a result, over the three decades following the passage of the law, more than 18 million legal immigrants entered the United States, a number more than three times larger than the previous 30 years.
While the law has faced criticism from some who argue that it has led to an excessive number of immigrants or that it has given too much preference to family reunification over other factors, it has undoubtedly had a profound impact on the makeup of the United States population.
Today, immigrants and their descendants make up a significant portion of the U.S. population and contribute to the country’s cultural, economic, and social diversity.
The Immigration Act of 1965 had a significant impact on the demographics of the American population by the end of the 20th century. In the 1950s, the majority of immigrants were Europeans, while only 6 percent were Asians.
However, by the 1990s, the percentage of European immigrants had dropped to 16 percent, while the percentage of Asians had increased to 31 percent. The numbers of Latino and African immigrants also saw significant increases.
Between 1965 and 2000, Mexico was the leading source of immigrants to the United States, with 4.3 million individuals arriving from there. The Philippines followed, with 1.4 million immigrants.
Other leading countries of origin included Korea, the Dominican Republic, India, Cuba, and Vietnam, each sending between 700,000 and 800,000 immigrants during this period.
Overall, the Immigration Act of 1965 led to a significant increase in the number of legal immigrants to the United States over the following three decades, with more than 18 million individuals entering the country during this time. These changes in immigration patterns had a lasting impact on the cultural and demographic makeup of the United States.
2.2 The Imminent Development of the Act in the 1980s-90s
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was a major immigration law passed by the U.S. Congress and signed by President Ronald Reagan on November 6, 1986.
The law aimed to address the issue of illegal immigration by increasing enforcement of immigration policies and creating new legal immigration possibilities.
One of the key features of the law was the establishment of a path to legal status for unauthorized immigrants who had lived in the U.S. continuously since before January 1, 1982. The law also increased the penalties for employers who knowingly hired unauthorized immigrants, in an effort to reduce the demand for illegal labour.
The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 also included two amnesty programs for unauthorized immigrants. The first, which applied to immigrants who had lived in the U.S. continuously since before January 1, 1982, allowed eligible immigrants to apply for legal status and eventually obtain citizenship.
The second, which applied to seasonal agricultural workers, allowed eligible workers to apply for temporary legal status and, eventually, permanent residency.
The 1990 Immigration Act was another major piece of immigration legislation that modified and expanded the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. The law increased the total level of immigration to 700,000 and created new categories of family-based and employment-based visas.
The law also established a Diversity Visa Program, which provided for the admission of immigrants from countries that were considered “underrepresented” in the immigrant flow to the U.S. The goal of this program was to increase the diversity of the immigrant population and to provide greater opportunities for immigrants from countries that had historically sent relatively few immigrants to the U.S.
The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), passed in 1996, was a significant piece of immigration legislation that addressed border enforcement and the use of social programs by immigrants.
The act made it easier for the government to deport illegal immigrants and imposed tougher penalties on those who entered the country illegally or overstayed their visas.
The law also created new grounds for deportation, such as committing fraud to obtain immigration benefits, and made it more difficult for legal immigrants to gain access to certain social programs.
The IIRIRA also included provisions related to legal immigration, including increasing the number of temporary visas available to skilled workers and creating a new category of temporary visas for workers in certain industries.
The law also made it more difficult for legal immigrants to sponsor family members for immigration, as it increased the documentation requirements for proving family relationships and increased the waiting times for family-sponsored visas.
The IIRIRA was controversial and faced criticism from both sides of the immigration debate. Some advocates argued that the law was too harsh on immigrants and made it difficult for them to access important social programs, while others argued that the law did not go far enough to address the issue of illegal immigration and the strain it placed on the country’s resources.
2.3 The Immigration Act and its Effect in the 21st Century
Diving deeper into the concept of the Immigration and Nationality Act, it deems important to understand the said act’s effect in the 21st century and how it has impacted the United States in general.
It’s worth noting that there have been some significant changes to U.S. immigration policies and procedures since the 1965 act, particularly in response to national security concerns and changing global economic conditions.
Taking as an illustration, after the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. government instituted stricter screening procedures for all travellers entering the country, including increased background checks, fingerprinting, and other security measures.
In addition to the aforementioned, the U.S. government has implemented a variety of programs and policies designed to encourage skilled workers and entrepreneurs to immigrate to the U.S., such as the H-1B visa program, which allows employers to hire foreign workers with specialized skills for up to six years.
There has also been an ongoing debate over immigration policy in the U.S., particularly in recent years. Some advocates for immigration reform argue that the current system is outdated and needs to be reformed to better reflect the needs of the U.S. economy and society.
Some of the others argue for more restrictive immigration policies, citing concerns about national security, job competition, and social and cultural cohesion. As with many issues in U.S. politics, the debate over immigration policy is likely to continue for the foreseeable future.
Barack Obama’s election as the first African American President of the United States in 2008 is a testament to the profound impact that immigration has had on the nation’s population and culture. Obama’s father was born in Kenya, and his mother was born in Kansas, making him a product of both the country’s immigrant and native-born communities.
The changing demographics of the United States are also reflected in the fact that by 2009, one-third of the country’s population was made up of minorities, which refers to people who are not non-Hispanic White.
This is a significant increase from just 15% in 1960 and is a direct result of the waves of immigrants that have come to the United States over the past few decades.
Furthermore, demographic projections suggest that the United States is on track to become a non-white majority country by 2042, meaning that no single racial or ethnic group will constitute a majority of the population.
This demographic shift has the potential to reshape the country’s politics, economy, and culture, as immigrants and their descendants become an increasingly influential and integrated part of American society.
3. The Act that Changed the Framework of the United States
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 had a significant impact on U.S. immigration policy, as it abolished the discriminatory national-origin quotas that had been in place since the 1920s.
These quotas heavily supported the immigrants from northern and western Europe while severely limiting immigration from other parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and the Middle East.
The act represented a major shift in immigration policy, as it placed a greater emphasis on family reunification and skilled immigrants, rather than the country of origin.
This change in policy led to a surge in immigration from Asia, Latin America, and other regions, which had previously been excluded or underrepresented.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was not just symbolic but also had a significant impact on the country’s demographics and economy. It helped transform the U.S. into a more diverse and multicultural society and contributed to the country’s economic growth by attracting skilled immigrants and entrepreneurs.
Today, the act’s legacy continues to shape U.S. immigration policy, which remains a complex and often contentious issue.
In the words of the lead supporter, Mr. Sen, “The bill will not flood our cities with immigrants.”
Sir Edward “Ted” Kennedy told the Senate during the debate the following “It will not upset the ethnic mix of our society. It will not relax the standards of admission. It will not cause American workers to lose their jobs.”
The aforementioned was seconded by Mr. Johnson, the person who not only signed the aforesaid Act on October 3, 1965 but also said that the bill would not be revolutionary. In his words, “It does not affect the lives of millions. It will not reshape the structure of our daily lives or add importantly to either our wealth or our power.”
Before the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, the U.S. had a quota system that heavily favoured immigrants from northern and western Europe, and severely restricted the number of immigrants from other parts of the world.
This system was designed to maintain the ethnic and racial makeup of the U.S. population and to limit immigration from countries that were considered undesirable by policymakers at the time.
The Hart-Celler Act abolished these national-origin quotas and replaced them with a system that focused on family reunification and employment-based immigration. This opened up the doors to immigrants from a much wider range of countries, including those in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The impact of this law on immigration patterns was significant. Before the act, immigrants from Europe made up the vast majority of newcomers to the U.S. In the decades since, immigration from Latin America and Asia has surged, changing the ethnic and racial makeup of the country.
According to the Pew Research Centre, in 1965, 84% of immigrants were from Europe and Canada, while by 2015, that figure had fallen to just 13%.
Speaking in a general sense, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 marked a turning point in U.S. immigration policy and has had a profound impact on the demographic makeup of the country.
4. The Elimination of Race Discrimination in Immigration Through the 1960 Act
The Civil Rights Movement in the United States during the 1950s and 1960s aimed to end racial segregation and discrimination against African Americans and other minority groups.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, also known as the Hart-Celler Act, was part of this broader movement to eliminate race discrimination from U.S. law.
The act ended the national-origin quotas that had favoured immigrants from northern and western Europe over those from other regions, opening up opportunities for immigrants from a wider range of countries and regions, including Asia, Latin America, and Africa.
This change in U.S. immigration policy was seen as a significant step forward in promoting greater diversity and reducing discrimination in the United States. The new law also reflected a growing recognition of the importance of immigration to the U.S. economy and society.
It allowed for more family reunification and the admission of skilled workers and led to a significant increase in the number of immigrants from non-European countries in the decades that followed.
The 1965 act transformed the face of immigration in the United States, leading to a much more diverse and multicultural society. The act has also been credited with contributing to economic growth and innovation by allowing skilled workers to immigrate and contribute to the U.S. economy.
5. Immigration Reform as a Part of The Civil Rights Movement
John F. Kennedy was a strong advocate for immigration reform and had been working on the issue even before he became President. As a Senator from Massachusetts, he had written a pamphlet called “A Nation of Immigrants” in which he argued for the elimination of the National Origins Quota System, which had been in place since 1921 and limited immigration from certain countries based on a formula that heavily favoured immigrants from Western Europe.
Kennedy believed that the quota system was discriminatory and un-American and that the United States should be a welcoming and inclusive society that values diversity and multiculturalism.
After Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, his brother Robert Kennedy and his friend and political ally, Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy of Massachusetts, took up the cause of immigration reform in his memory.
Both men were committed to the cause of civil rights and social justice, and they saw immigration reform as a natural extension of these values.
They also recognized that the changing geopolitical landscape of the Cold War era made it important for the United States to have a more flexible and rational immigration policy that would allow the country to attract and retain the best and brightest from around the world.
With the support of President Lyndon B. Johnson, who saw immigration reform as a way to bolster his own legacy and appeal to immigrant communities, the Kennedy brothers played key roles in drafting and passing the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.
This landmark legislation eliminated the National Origins Quota System and replaced it with a new system based on family reunification and employment qualifications.
The new law also abolished racial and ethnic quotas, which had previously restricted immigration from non-European countries, and opened up new opportunities for immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
The passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was a major milestone in the history of immigration in the United States. It represented a rejection of the discriminatory policies of the past and a recognition of the contributions that immigrants have made and continue to make to American society.
The role of the Kennedy family in this achievement is a testament to their commitment to social justice and their belief in the American dream.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was a significant departure from previous immigration policies in the United States, which had been based on discriminatory quotas that favoured immigrants from certain countries over others.
The new law replaced the quota system with a system that prioritized family reunification and employment qualifications and eliminated the racial and ethnic quotas that had previously restricted immigration from non-European countries.
The shift towards a more merit-based and non-discriminatory immigration policy was consistent with the broader civil rights and anti-discrimination efforts of the time. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were landmark pieces of legislation that sought to end racial discrimination in voting and employment, respectively.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 can be seen as a continuation of this trend, as it recognized the importance of evaluating each person as an individual, rather than relying on broad stereotypes or quotas based on race or ethnicity.
This shift towards a more inclusive and merit-based immigration policy has had a profound impact on the United States and its society. It has helped to create a more diverse and multicultural nation and has allowed talented and ambitious individuals from all over the world to contribute their skills and talents to American society.
While there is still much work to be done to ensure that immigration policies are fair and just for all, the legacy of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 continues to shape the debate and policy discussions around immigration in the United States today.
The act, Edward Kennedy argued during the Senate floor debate, went to the “very central ideals of our country.”
“Our streets may not be paved with gold, but they are paved with the promise that men and women who live here—even strangers and new newcomers—can rise as fast, as far as their skills will allow, no matter what their colour is, no matter what the place of their birth,” views expressed by Senator Edward “Ted” Kennedy during the Senate floor debate on the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.
Kennedy was a strong supporter of the bill and believed that it was essential to uphold the central ideals of American society, including the belief in equal opportunity and the ability of individuals to succeed based on their skills and merit, rather than their race or place of birth.
Kennedy’s speech highlighted the fact that the United States was founded as a nation of immigrants and that the contributions of newcomers had been essential to the country’s success and prosperity.
He argued that the new immigration law would help to ensure that this tradition of openness and opportunity would continue into the future, by allowing talented and motivated individuals from around the world to come to the United States and pursue their dreams.
Kennedy’s speech reflects the broader sentiment of the time, which saw immigration reform as a way to uphold the ideals of the Civil Rights Movement and ensure that all individuals, regardless of their background or ethnicity, had an equal chance to succeed in American society.
The passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was a major milestone in this effort, and its legacy continues to shape the way that Americans think about immigration and diversity today.
6. The Changes Brought by the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Numerous changes were witnessed post the initiation of the said act of which the following serve to be highly essential:
- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 was a major law that eliminated the national origins quota system and established a more merit-based system of evaluating immigrants. This change in policy allowed for more diversity in immigration and prioritized skilled labourers and professionals.
- It was a landmark piece of legislation that transformed American immigration policy and helped create a more diverse and multicultural society.
- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 did establish a cap on immigration from Mexico and Central and South America, which had previously been exempt from numerical limitations under the National Origins Quota System. This change was a significant departure from the past policy, which had been guided by the Monroe Doctrine and the need for free labour flow, especially in the agricultural sector.
- The decision to cap immigration from Mexico and Central and South America was also compounded by the elimination of the Bracero Program, which had allowed temporary guest workers from Mexico to work in the United States.
- This decision disrupted traditional patterns of the labour movement and agricultural production, which relied heavily on migrant workers from Mexico and other parts of the Americas. As a result, the United States continues to grapple with the impact of these decisions on its economy and society.
- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 significantly changed immigration demographics and increased immigrant numbers in the United States. According to a report by the Pew Research Centre, the act helped to transform the country’s racial and ethnic composition.
- Without any post-1965 immigration, the U.S. would have been 75 percent white, 14 percent black, 8 percent Hispanic, and less than 1 percent Asian. However, with the new law, immigrants from different parts of the world, including Asia, Africa, and Latin America, were allowed to enter the country in greater numbers, leading to a more diverse and multicultural society.
- The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 led to a significant increase in the immigrant population in the United States. According to a report by the Pew Research Centre, the Hispanic population in the U.S. rose from 4 percent in 1965 to 18 percent in 2015, while the Asian population grew from 1 percent to 6 percent during the same period.
- This fast-growing immigrant population has also driven the share of the U.S. population that is foreign-born, which has increased from 5 percent in 1965 to 14 percent in 2015 and is projected to reach a record high of 18 percent in 2065.
- As a result, no racial or ethnic group will claim a majority of the U.S. population in the future, further highlighting the impact of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 on the country’s demographics.
7. The Debate on the Act of 1965
The 1965 Act remains a subject of debate, with proponents hailing it as a triumph that has diversified the country, created economic growth, and enriched society with talented individuals. Critics argue that the law has increased competition for low-skilled U.S. workers and led to cultural fragmentation.
However, a recent study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine found that post-1965 immigrants and their offspring are integrating into American society successfully.
While successive generations are making progress in education, language proficiency, earnings, and occupational distribution, they still lag behind the native-born population as a whole.
The success of post-1965 Act immigrants in integrating into U.S. society depends on various factors such as legal status, social class, educational background, and geographic area of settlement, according to a study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.
Diaspora groups from countries dominating post-1965 immigration flows have surpassed median U.S. educational attainment levels, household incomes, and workforce participation rates.
The study finds that the educational levels of newly arrived immigrants have improved significantly since the 1970s, with 41 percent of recently arrived immigrants being college graduates in 2013 compared to 20 percent in 1970. In comparison, 30 percent of the native-born population had college degrees in 2013 vs. 11 percent in 1970.
The article discusses the impact of the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act on the demographic makeup of the United States and the integration of post-1965 immigrants into American society.
The law removed the discriminatory quotas that were based on national origin and ethnicity, which had existed since the 1920s, and opened the door for a more diverse range of immigrants to come to the United States.
While the law has been credited with diversifying the U.S. population and bringing in new sources of talent and economic growth, it has also faced criticism for its unintended consequences. Some critics argue that it has created competition for low-skilled American workers and disrupted the country’s cultural homogeneity.
A recent study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine found that immigrants and their descendants have been successfully integrating into U.S. society over time, but this varies depending on factors such as legal status, social class, educational background, and geographic area of settlement.
Diaspora groups from certain countries, such as India, the Philippines, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Egypt, Kenya, and Nigeria, have generally done well in terms of educational attainment, household incomes, and workforce participation rates. However, diaspora groups from other countries, such as Mexico, El Salvador, and Haiti, have struggled to integrate and face socio-economic disadvantages.
The article concludes that the immigration debate in the United States is ultimately about the country’s identity, and the 1965 Act will continue to shape the changing face of America until there are significant changes to the immigration system.
The beauty of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 lies in the fact that though there are numerous debates taking rounds around the aforesaid, the essence of it states that it has brought numerous positive development in the United States pertaining to the aspects of immigrants.
From understanding the concept of the Act to the history of the same, not to forget the question of debate whether it is a success or not, the concept of the Act will never defy the idea that immigrants and nationals of the States, have been bestowed with appropriate rights.